Essay and Answer Writing

‘Little Albert’ experiment

The ‘Little Albert’ experiment conducted in 1920 demonstrated that punishments can instill a deep fear in children.
The ‘Little Albert’ experiment was conducted by John B Watson and his partner Rosalie Rayner at Johns Hopkins University on a nine- month- old infant ‘Albert’. Initially, when a small rat was placed before Albert, he showed no fear.
When Albert was 11 months old, Watson gradually began to create fear in him. Whenever the little child touched the rat, a hammer was struck on a steel bar. The sudden loud noise would cause Albert to cry and burst into tears.
Soon after, the child developed fear of the rat itself. Instead of loving and trying to touch the rat, Albert would be scared and start crying as soon as he saw it. Watson gradually created similar conditioned reflexes with other common animals and objects until Albert feared them all. 
‘Little Albert’ experiment

Source: “Mastering Essay & Answer Writing for UPSC Civil Services IAS/ IPS & State PSC Main Exam” by Dr Awdhesh Singh, available at

Related Articles
• Management of Indian border disputes – a complex task? [2018]
• The PPP model of development [2012]
• “To test a man’s character, give him power”
• “Poverty anywhere is a threat to prosperity everywhere” [2018]
• GDP along with GNH as the indices for measuring progress
• The relevance of Gandhi in modern times [2012]
• Hyper Globalism: a threat to human prosperity?
• Business Process Outsourcing in India: a booming phenomenon? [2007]
• Covid-19 and the BioMedical Waste crisis
• Non-Performing Assets in the banking sector: causes and solutions
Recent Articles
• Q14. The Challenges of An NGO
• Q13. Protest Against An MNC
• Q11. The Difficulty of A Destitute Woman
• Q10. Rehabilitation of Adivasis
• Q9. Discharging Toxic Waste in River
• Q8. The Morality of State Bureaucracy
• Q7. Management of Anger
• Q1(b). Impartiality and Non-partisanship
• Q6. Undesirable Values Prevalent in India
• Q5. Law and Ethics for Civilized Social Existence