Q5. Law and ethics are considered to be the two tools for controlling human conduct so as to make it conducive to civilised social existence.
(a) Discuss how they achieve this objective.
(b) Giving examples, show how the two differ in their approaches. (150 words)
(a) In a civilized society, people not only take care of themselves, but also follow the norms that are required for a peaceful social existence. Social harmony is achieved by observing ethical values of the society and by following the law. When we follow ethical behaviour, we are appreciated by society and we are condemned for our unethical behaviour. The desire for appreciation and fear of condemnation motivate us to follow ethical behaviour. Laws are made for the collective good of the society and their violation invites punishment. People, therefore, obey laws to avoid punishment which reduces bad behaviour and promotes good behaviour.
(b) Laws are made by the parliament or the sovereign power and prescribe penalties for their violation. They must be obeyed by all the citizens. The criminal laws made against murder, theft, rape, kidnapping etc. ensure peace in the society. Similarly, ethical values are inculcated by our parents, teachers, friends, religious leaders and social reformers. They are followed voluntarily due to the social benefits. (165 words)