Q14. In our country, the migration of rural people to towns and cities is increasing drastically. This is causing serious problems both in the rural as well as urban areas. In fact, things are becoming really unmanageable. Can you analyse this problem in detail and indicate not only the socio-economic but also the emotional and attitudinal factors responsible for this problem? Also, distinctly bring out why -
1. Educated rural youth are trying to shift to urban areas
2. Landless poor people are migrating to urban slums
3. Even some farmers are selling off their land and trying to settle in urban areas, taking up petty jobs.
What feasible steps can you suggest which will be effective in controlling this serious problem in our country? (250 words)
There are many reasons for the migration of rural people to urban areas. Some important reasons are:
• Lack of educational and health facilities in villages.
• Lack of good paying jobs in villages.
• Small size of the agricultural landholdings.
• High risk of failures of weather-related crops.
• Low profitability in agriculture.
• Social pressure to confirm to the norms of society with little freedom to live life according to one’s own will.
• Little business opportunities due to lack of prosperous people in villages.
The reasons for the specific issues are as following:
1. Most rural people are attracted towards the cities due to better job opportunities, freedom to live life on their own terms and better infrastructural facilities.
2. Landless people are migrating because their employment opportunities are seasonal and they often don’t get even the minimum wages in villages. In urban areas, they can get better paying jobs throughout the year.
3. Farmers are selling their lands because the cost of farming has gone up while the sale price of the agricultural produce has not increased in the same proportion. As a result, their profits have been considerably reduced. They find it better to get petty jobs in cities than to live in villages with little profit in farming.
The following steps can be taken to stop the migration process:
• Develop better schools and hospitals in rural areas
• Ensure minimum wages to labourers in rural areas
• Fix higher minimum support price for agricultural products
• Connect the villages through Internet and help outsourcing of jobs in rural areas
• Promote business and industries in the rural areas by providing tax concessions and government subsidies. (270 words)
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