Economics (NCERT) Notes

5.4 Assessment of Education Sector in India

Education for All

• Directive Principles of the Constitution that the government should provide free and compulsory education for all children up to the age of 14 years within 10 years from the commencement of the Constitution.

• This goal is yet to be achieved by India today after 70 years.

• Though literacy rates  have increased, still the absolute number of illiterates in India is as much as India’s population was at the time of independence.

• We have miles to go in achieving cent per cent adult literacy.


Gender Equity

• The differences in literacy rates between males and females are narrowing signifying.

• Promotion of education for women in India is needed for various reasons such as improving economic independence and social status of women and also because women education makes a favourable impact on fertility rate and health care of women and children.


Higher Education

• The Indian education pyramid is steep, indicating lesser and lesser number of people reaching the higher education level.

• Moreover, the level of unemployment among educated youth is the highest.

• As per NSSO data, in the year 2011-12, the rate of unemployment among youth males who studied graduation and above in rural areas was 19% ( only 16 per cent for the urban youths). Young rural female graduates unemployment rate is nearly 30%.

• Only about 3% - 6% of primary level educated youth in rural and urban areas were unemployed.



• Government should increase allocation for higher education and improve the standard of higher education institutions.

• Students should be imparted employable skills in such institutions.

• India has a rich stock of scientific and technical manpower in the world.

• Their quality needs to be improved and there must be such conditions that they are utilised in their own country.

• The focus must change from quantity to quality.

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