Economics (NCERT) Notes

2.2 Quality of Population

Challenges in Education

• A vast difference is noticed across different sections of the population.

• Literacy among males is nearly 16.6% higher than females and it is about 16.1% higher in urban areas as compared to rural areas.

• In 2011, literacy rates varied from 94% in Kerala to 62% in Bihar.

• The primary school system has expanded to over 8.58 lakh in 2013–14, but the quality of education has been diluted and there is also a high dropout rate.  



• Health is an indispensable basis for realising one’s well-being and true potential. Hence, the health status of the population has been the priority of the country.

• India’s national health policy aims at improving the accessibility of healthcare, family welfare and nutritional service with a special focus on the underprivileged segment of the population.

• India has built a vast health infrastructure and has also developed the manpower required at primary, secondary and tertiary sector in government, as well as, in the private sector.


Results of the Health care measures

• Increased the life expectancy to over 68.3 years in 2014.

• Infant mortality rate (IMR) has come down from 147 in 1951 to 37 in 2015.

• Crude birth rates have dropped to 20.8 and death rates to 6.5 within the same duration of time.


Challenges of Healthcare

• There are many places in India which do not have even these basic health facilities.

• There are only 381 medical colleges in the country and 301 dental colleges.

• Just four states, like Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka, Maharastra and Tamil Nadu have the maximum number of colleges.

• Health care is expensive and not accessible to common man.

• Most doctors work in cities and villagers find it difficult to bear their fees and expenses.

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