Economics (NCERT) Notes

7.2 Participation of People in Employment

Why Urban Employment Figure is low?

• People in rural areas have limited resources to earn a higher income and participate more in the employment market.

• Many do not go to schools, colleges and other training institutions.

• Most of rural population discontinue in the middle to join the workforce; whereas, in urban areas, a considerable section is able to study in various educational institutions.

• Urban people have a variety of employment opportunities due to their better qualifications and skills.

• In rural areas, people cannot stay at home as they are poor.


Why are women not working as men?

• Lack of requisite qualification, knowledge and skill.

• Chances of exploitation and harassment at workplace.

• Where men are able to earn high incomes, families discourage female members from taking up jobs.

• Socially conditioned to take care of the children and family.


Different Types of Employment

• Workers who own and operate an enterprise to earn their livelihood are known as self-employed. About 52% workforce in India belongs to this category.

• The workers employed on daily basis are known as casual wage labourers; they account for 30 per cent of India’s workforce.

• When a worker is engaged by someone or an enterprise and paid his or her wages on a regular basis, they are known as regular salaried employees.


Distribution of Employment by Region

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