Economics (NCERT) Notes

6.4 Diversification into Productive Activities

Problems in Animal Husbandry Sector

• The productivity of Indian livestock is quite low as compared to other countries.

• Iimproved technology and promotion of good breeds of animals is needed to enhance productivity.

• Improved veterinary care and credit facilities to small and marginal farmers and landless labourers would enhance sustainable livelihood options through livestock production.



• The fishing community regards the water body as ‘mother’ or ‘provider’.

• The water bodies consisting of sea, oceans, rivers, lakes, natural aquatic ponds, streams etc. are  an integral and life-giving source for the fishing community.

• Presently, fish production from inland sources contributes about 64 per cent to the total value of fish production and the balance 36 per cent comes from the marine sector (sea and oceans).

• Today total fish production accounts for 0.8 per cent of the total GDP. West Bengal, Andhra Pradesh, Kerala, Gujarat, Maharashtra and Tamil Nadu are major fish producing states.


Problems in the Fisheries Sector

• Major Problems

• Rampant underemployment,

• low per capita earnings,

• absence of mobility of labour to other sectors

• a high rate of illiteracy and

• indebtedness

• Even though women are not involved in active fishing, about 60 per cent of the workforce in export marketing and 40 per cent in internal marketing are women.



• There is a need to increase credit facilities through cooperatives and SHGs for fisherwomen to meet the working capital requirements for marketing. Problems.

• Over- fishing and pollution need to be regulated and controlled.

• Welfare programmes for the fishing community have to be reoriented to provide long-term gains and sustenance of livelihoods.

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